Femtosecond time-resolved two-photon photoemission studies of electron dynamics in metals

TitleFemtosecond time-resolved two-photon photoemission studies of electron dynamics in metals
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication1997
AuthorsPetek, H, Ogawa, S
JournalProgress in surface science
ISBN Number0079-6816

Electron-hole excitation and relaxation in the bulk, at interfaces, and surfaces of solid state materials play a key role in a variety of physical and chemical phenomena that are important for surface photochemistry, particle-surface interactions, and device physics. Information on charge carrier relaxation in metals can be obtained through analysis of linewidths measured by photoemission and related techniques, which give an estimate of the upper limit for electron and hole relaxation; however, many factors can contribute to spectral broadening, thus it is difficult to extract specific information on electronic relaxation processes. With femtosecond lasers it is possible to probe directly in a time-resolved fashion the charge carrier dynamics in metals by a variety of linear and nonlinear optical techniques. Femtosecond time-resolved two-photon photoemission has attracted particularly strong interest because it incorporates many of the surface analytical capabilities of photoemission and inverse photoemission — the traditional probes for surface and bulk band structures of solid state materials — with time-resolution that is approaching the fundamental response of electrons to optical excitation. Advances in the direct measurements of electron-hole excitation, charge carrier relaxation, and dynamics of intrinsic and adsorbate induced surface states are reviewed. With femtosecond lasers it also is possible to probe a variety of coherent phenomena, and even to control the charge carrier dynamics in metals through the optical phase of the excitation light. Pioneering experiments in this new field also are discussed.